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英文契約書作成上の
注意点(一般編)
英文契約書作成上の注意点(一般編)

2.一般条項

 英文契約書には、契約書の種類を問わず、おおよそ共通して見られる条項があり、これらを「一般条項」といいます。英語ではなぜか「ボイラープレート条項」( boiler plate provisions )といいます。
 ここに示したものは網羅的なリストではありませんが、役に立ちそうな文例を取り上げてみました。表明・保証( Representation and Warranty )条項や責任制限( Limitation of Liability )条項などは、あまり「一般条項」とは言わないかもしれませんが、各種契約書にある程度共通して見られる文例もありますので、ここに掲載しました。
  以下の文例はあくまで説明用であり、必ずしも貴社の案件にとって最善の文例というわけではありませんのでご了解ください。個別の案件につきましては弁護士にご相談ください。

(1)契約の期間、存続に関する条項

Term (契約期間)

(Term of this Agreement)
This Agreement shall come into force on the date first above written subject to
signing by both Maker and Distributor and, unless earlier terminated, remain in
force for a period of [----] years, and shall be automatically renewed and continue
on a year to year basis unless the parties agree to terminate this Agreement at least six months before the expiration of the original or any subsequent term of this
Agreement.

Duration ともいいます。文例は、6月前までに反対の意思表示をしない限り自動更新する条項となっています。

Termination (契約の終了)

 

(Termination of this Agreement)
1.
In the event that either party fails to perform any obligation hereunder or
otherwise commits any breach of this Agreement, the other party may terminate
this Agreement by giving to the party in default a written notice, which shall
become effective ninety (90) days after the said notice has been duly delivered to
the party in default, unless the failure or breach is corrected within said ninety
(90) days period.
   
2. In the event that any proceeding for insolvency or bankruptcy is initiated by or
against Distributor, or a receiver is appointed for Distributor, Maker may
forthwith terminate this Agreement.

*期間満了は expire (動詞)といいます。

* terminate (動詞)は期間満了による終了も含むので、「解除する」を特に区別するため earlier terminate ということもあります(前掲 Term of this Agreement の文例を参照)。

(2)準拠法、紛争解決に関する条項
Governing Law (準拠法)

 

(Governing Law)
This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of
Japan [without referring to the choice of law rules].

*反致と呼ばれる矛盾(どちらの当事者も意図しない国の法が準拠法となってしまう矛盾)を避けるために[----] 内を加えることがあります。
Jurisdiction (裁判管轄) /Arbitration (仲裁) /Dispute Resolution (紛争解決)

 

(Arbitration)
All disputes, controversies or differences which may arise between the parties
hereto, out of, in relation to, or in connection with this Agreement, shall be finally
settled by arbitration in Tokyo , Japan in accordance with the Commercial
Arbitration Rules of The Japan Commercial Arbitration Association. The award
rendered by the arbitrator(s) shall be final and binding upon both parties.

 皆さんは、準拠法と管轄はどちらが重要と思いますか。相手方が先進国の企業である場合、準拠法によって契約の解釈が大きく変わることはありません。これに対して、相手国で裁判や仲裁を行うのは、コスト面で大変な負担です。したがって、管轄条項が圧倒的に重要である場合が多いと思います。外国企業は、日本法を準拠法とすることに抵抗を示す場合が多々あります。そのような場合、「仕方ない、準拠法は譲ってやる。その代わり仲裁地は日本にしてくれ」というのが正しい交渉の仕方です。ただし相手企業の国が中国やイスラム圏などの場合はこの限りでありません。

 そのほか、準拠法条項そのものを削除してしまうという離れ業もあります。

 管轄については、被告地主義(アメリカ企業が訴えた場合は日本で、日本企業が訴えた場合はアメリカで)の条項とすることにより、訴訟や仲裁を極力回避するという選択もあります。

(3)各条項の解釈や有効性に関する条項
Headings (標題)

 

(Headings)
Section headings are for convenience of reference only and shall not affect
the interpretation of this Agreement.

Entire Agreement (完全合意)

 

(Entire Agreement)
This Agreement (a) constitutes the entire agreement and understanding between the parties with respect to its subject matter, and there are no promises, representations, conditions, provisions or terms related thereto other than those set forth in this Agreement; and (b) supersedes all previous understandings, agreements and representations between the parties, written or oral, with respect to its subject matter.

Severability (分離可能)

 

(Severability)
If any provision of this Agreement should, for any reason, be held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be illegal, invalid, or unenforceable, the remaining provisions shall not be affected or impaired, and shall remain in full force.

Language (言語)

 

( Language )
This Agreement is prepared in English and in Japanese. If there should be any discrepancies, the English version shall prevail.

(4)表明・保証条項

 

( Representation and Warranty )
Each party hereto represents and warrants to the other party (i) that it is a duly organized and existing legal entity, and in good standing under the laws of its domicile; and (ii) that it has full authority to enter into this agreement.
(5)秘密保持条項

 

(Confidentiality)
Either party shall hold in strict confidence, and shall not disclose, directly or indirectly, to any third party or make a publication of any technical, economic, financial, marketing or other information received or discerned pursuant to this Agreement (hereinafter called the “Confidential Information”) without prior written approval of the disclosing party.

秘密保持条項は定型的なように見えますが、実は検討すべき点が多々あります
(各種契約編の「4.秘密保持契約」を参照してください)。
(6)その他

Force Majeure (不可抗力)

 

(Force Majeure)
Any delays in or failures of performance by either party under this Agreement shall not be considered a breach of this Agreement if and to the extent caused by occurrences beyond a reasonable control of the party affected, including but not limited to: acts of God; change of regulations or laws of any government; strikes or other concerted acts of workers; fires; floods; explosions; riots; wars; rebellions; and sabotage; and any time for performance hereunder shall be extended by the actual time of delay caused by such occurrence.
Assignment (契約の譲渡)

 

(Assignment)
This Agreement, or any of the rights and obligations created herein, shall not be assigned, sublicensed or transferred, in whole or in part, by either party hereto without the prior written consent of the other party.

Waiver/Non-Waiver (権利の不放棄)

 

(Waiver)
Failure or delay on the part of either party hereto in exercising its right of termination hereunder for any one or more defaults shall not prejudice either party's right of termination for such or for any other or subsequent default.

(Non-Waiver)
The waiver by either party, whether express or implied, of any provisions of this Agreement, or of any breach or default of either party, shall not be construed to be a continuing waiver of such provision, or of any succeeding breach or default or a waiver of any other provisions of this Agreement.

( Remedies )
The parties' rights and remedies under this Agreement are cumulative. Licensee acknowledges that any actual or threatened breach of this Agreement will constitute immediate, irreparable harm to Licensor for which monetary damages would be an inadequate remedy, and that injunctive relief is an appropriate remedy for such breach.

cumulative は「累積的」という意味です。英米法では、金銭賠償(コモンロー上の救済)で足りる場合は特定履行(差止など)(エクイティ上の救済)は受けられないというルールがあります。これを覆すための特約というわけです。
Disclaimer (免責事項) /Limitation of Liability (責任の制限)

(Disclaimer)
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS AGREEMENT, THIS AGREEMENT EXCLUDES, AND LICENSOR SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS, ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE LICENSED PRODUCTS, THE LICENSED PATENTS AND KNOW-HOW, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ACCURACY, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OF THE LICENSED PRODUCTS.

(Limitation of Liability)
IN NO EVENT SHALL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR TO ANY THIRD PARTY FOR LOSS OF PROFITS OR ANY OTHER CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF LICENSEE'S OR ANY OF ITS CUSTOMER'S USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE LICENSED PRODUCTS, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Each party's total liability to the other under the Agreement shall be limited to the amount equal to the accumulated payment of the royalties under Article [----] hereof from Licensee to Licensor.

 
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